Some Basic Information about the World

Some Basic Information about the World

MAJOR WARS

  • The Napoleonic Wars provoked by the French Revolution of 1782.
  • The Mongolian Conquests of the early 13th Century in Europe considered the most hostile war in history
  • The Manchu Conquest of China which was fought for more than 60 years in the 17th century
  • The First World War started on July 28, 1914 and ended on November 11, 1918
  • The Second World War started on September 1,1939 and ended on September 2, 1945. It is recorded as the deadliest war in history, with over 70 million deaths.
  • The Nigeria Civil war started on July 6, 1967 and ended on 14, January, 1970.
  • The Gulf war started on August 2, 1990 and ended February 28, 1991.
  • Shortest war in history is the Anglo-Zanzibar war which lasted for between 38 to 45 minutes on August 27, 1896 between the United Kingdom and the Zanzibar Sultanate.

 

WORLD EXPLORATIONS

  • Vasco Dagama discovered the sea route to India
  • Mungo Park discovered the coast of the River Niger
  • Yeru Gagarin is the first man to travel to space in 1961
  • Captain Anderson is the first man to travel and reach the South
  • Pole in 1912 and flew over the North Pole in 1929
  • The Portuguese were the first Europeans to come to West Africa
  • Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk in the moon in 1969

 

PACE-SETTERS

  • In 3000 BC Abacus invented the principle of computer, but Charles Babbage invented the principle of modern computer (The modern analytic computer).
  • The oldest University in the world is the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in October 975 AD by Al-Mi’izz li-Din Allah
  • The first individual to sail round the world is Ferdinand Magellan (1519 – 1522)
  • William Harvey discovered Blood Circulation (1616)
  • Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen (1774)
  • George Washington was the first president of U.S.A after their independence in 1776
  • Sir William Wilberforce stopped the business of slave trade (1807 when the Slave Trade Act was passed in the English parliament)
  • Louis Daguerre. The first man to successfully photograph a Human being in 1839
  • In 1883 Sir William Smith founded the Boys Brigade
  • In 1908 Lord Burden Powell founded Boys Scout
  • Mary Slessor, a Scottish Missionary, stopped the killing of twins in Calabar, Nigeria. She died January 13, 1915 at the age of 66.
  • In 1937 Sir Isaac Pitman introduced shorthand writing system
  • Tensing Sherpa and Edmund Hilary were the first men to reach the top of Mount Everest ( may 25, 1953)
  • Boutros Boutros Ghali (An Egyptian) was the first African to become the Secretary General of United Nations Organization (UNO) (January 1992 – December 1996)

 

WORLD INVENTIONS

1456: Johannes Gutenberg a German Craftsman invented the Printing machine

1590:  Zacharias Janssen from Holland invented the Microscope

1609:  Galileo Galilei from Italy invented Telescope

1643:  Evangelista Torricelli from Italy invented the Barometer

1656:  Christian Huygens from Holland invented Clock

1740:  Anders Celsius from Sweden invented Centigrade Thermometer

1769:  James Watt from Scotland invented the Steam engine

1790:  Kirkpatrick Macmillan of France, built the first peddler Mechanism (Bicycle) in 1839

1798:  Edward Jenner from England invented the Vaccination

1813: Oskar Barnack from Germany invented the modern Camera

1814: George Stephenson from Great Britain invented the Railway Engine

1821:  Michael Faraday from England invented the Electricity

1822: Joseph Nicephore Niepce from France invented Photography

1830: Thimonier from France invented the Sewing Machine

1867: Glidden Sholes from America invented the Type-writer

1876: Alexander Graham Bell from Scotland invented the Telephone

1888:  Thomas Edison from America invented Gramophone.

1890: Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler from Germany invented the Motor Car

1895:  Marchese Marcini from Germany invented the Cinema

1895:  Wihelin K. Rontgen from Germany discovered X-Rays

1897:  Sir Ronald Ross discovered the cause of Malaria fever

1902:  Thomas Alva Edison from U.S.A invented New Electric Storage Battery

1903:  Orville and Wilbur Wright from America invented the Aeroplane

1922:  John Logie Baurd from Scotland invented the Television

1940:  Alexander Fleming from Scotland invented Penicillin

 

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS

NIGERIA        

BOI Bank of Industry
BPE Bureau of Public Enterprises
CAC Corporate Affairs Commission
CAN Christian Association of Nigeria
CBN Central Bank of Nigeria
DSS Directorate of State Security
EE Environmental Education
EFCC Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
ETF Education Trust Fund
FAAN Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria
FCT Federal Capital Territory
FERMA Federal Roads Maintenance Agency
FEPA Federal Environmental Protection Agency
FESTAC Festival of Arts and Culture
FFS Federal Fire Service
FHA Federal Housing Authority
FIRS Federal Inland Revenue Service
FRCN Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria
FRSC Federal Road Safety Commission
FSP Family Support Programme
ICPC Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission
JAMB Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board
MOSOP Movement for Survival of Ogoni People formed In 1990
NAEE Nigerian Association for Environmental Education
NAFDAC National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control
NAIC National Agricultural Insurance Corporation
NBC National Broadcasting Commission
NCAA Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority
NCF Nigerian Conservation Foundation
NCMM National Commission for Museums & Monuments
NCWS National Council for Women Society
NDLEA National Drug Law Enforcement Agency
NEPA National Electric Power Authority
NFVCB National Film & Videos Censors Board
NGE Nigerian Guild of Editors
NMA National Maritime Authority
NNPC Nigeria National Petroleum Co-operation
NPC National Planning Commission
NUC National Universities Commission
NUJ Nigerian Union of Journalists
NWC National War College
NYSC National Youth Service Corps
OMPADEC Oil Mineral Producing Area Development Communities
PPFN Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria
PTF Petroleum Trust Fund
SSS

State Security Services

STAN Science Teachers Association of Nigeria
WAI War against Indiscipline

 

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS

INTERNATIONAL 

ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States (May 28, 1975)
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization
FIFA Federation of International Football Association
ILO The International Labor Organization
OAU Organization of African Unity formed May 25, 1963
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries formed 1960
UNDP United Nation Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNICEF United Nation International Children’s Emergency Fund
UNO United Nation Organization
USAID United State Agency for International Development
WAFU West Africa Football Union
WHO World Health Organization

 

IMPORTANT PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE WORLD

1 Continents of the world

 

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

2 The largest continent Asia
3 The largest city in the world New York City
4 Most thickly populated country in the world China
5 The largest Desert in the world Sahara Desert
6 The largest Ocean in the world

 

Pacific Ocean (about 64,186,300 sq miles in area)
7 The longest River in the world

 

River Nile in North East Africa
8 The largest lake in the world Caspian Sea
9 The largest sea in the world Caribbean
10 The highest waterfall in the world Angel
11 The highest mountain in the world

 

Mount Everest in Nepaltibet (about 29,028 ft high)
12 The highest mountain in Africa Mount Kilimanjaro
13 First country in the world to win the under 16 FIFA World Cup (August 1985 in China) Nigeria

 

OCEANS OF THE WORLD

OCEAN Area  (Sq.m) Avg depth (ft) Max depth (ft)
Pacific 64,186,300 14,048 36,198
Atlantic 33,420,000 12,880 28,374
Indian 28,350,500 13,002 25,344
Artic 5,105,700 5,010 17,880

GREAT DESERTS OF THE WORLD

Desert  Location                        Size (sq.mi)
Sahara N. Africa 3,000,000
Great Australian Australia 1,300,000
Gobi Central Asia 600,000
Kara Kum Central Asia 150,000
Thar N.W. India 150,000
Takla Makan W. China 125,000
Kalahari S. Africa 100,000
Nubian N.E Africa 90,000
Arabian Egypt 86,000
Atacama Chile 66,000

   

 TEN LARGEST SEAS 

Name Area (sq.m)                                 Avg depth Max depth (ft)
Caribbean 1,049,500 8,685 22,788
Mediterranean 969,100 4,926 15,190
South China 895,400 5,400 16,456
Bering 873,000 4,893 15,659
Gulf of Mexico 615,000                                                              4,874 12,425
Oknotsk 613,838 2,749 11,069
East China 482,300 617 9,125
Hudson Bay 475,800 420 2,886
Japan 391,100 5,468 12,275
Andaman 308,000 2,854 12,392

TEN HIGHEST WATERFALLS

Name Country                              Height(ft)
Angel Venezuela 3,212
Tugela South Africa 3,110
Cuquenan Venezuela 2,000
Sutherland New Zealand 1,904
Ribbon United States 1,612
Upper Yosemite United States 1,430
Gavarine France 1,385
Takkakaw Canada 1,248
Krimmi Austria 1,247
Silverstrand United States 1,170

                 

 TEN LONGEST RIVERS 

River  Length  Location
Nile 4,145 Africa (North East)
Amazon 3,915 South America
Mississippi-Missouri 3,710 United States
Ob-irtysh 3,460 Former USSR
Yangtze 3,400 Asia (China)
Yello 3,010 Asia (China)
Congo 2,718 Africa (CAR)
Amur 2,700 Siberia
Lena 2,680 Siberia
Mackenzie-Peace 2,635 Canada

 

TEN LARGEST LAKES

Lake Location  Area(m2)                   Length(m)
Caspian Sea Former USSR/Iran 143,550 760
Superior U.S/Canada 31,700 350
Victoria East Central Africa 26,828 250
Aral Former USSR 25,300 280
Huron USA/Canada 23,050 206
Michigan USA 22,300 304
Tanganyika East Central Africa 12,700 420
Great Bear Canada 12,275 232
Baykal Former USSR 11,780 325
Nyasa South East Africa 11,430 360

        

TEN HIGHEST MOUNTAINS 

MOUNTAINS RANGE LOCATION HEIGHT (m)    
Everest Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 29,028
Godwin-Austen Karakoram India/Kashmir 28,250
Kanchenjunga Himalayas Nepal/Sikkim 28,168
Malalu Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,790
Dhaulagiri Himalayas Nepal 26,810
Nanga Parbai Himalayas Kashmir 26,660
Annapurna Himalayas Nepal 26,504
Gasherbrum Karakoram Kashmir 26,470
Gosainthan Himalayas Tibet 26,291
Nanda Devi Himalayas India 25,645

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